Economics relies on formal styles of argument more than other
social sciences. Formal modelling implies that conclusions
follow rigorously by the laws of logic from the stated assumptions.
It may involve advanced mathematical methods, but need not.
Formal modelling is motivated by the belief that it encourages
researchers to focus on essentials and makes exposition less
prone to ambiguity. Modelling is also increasingly used in
other social sciences, such as political science and philosophy.
Formal modelling has been adopted by all branches of economics.
It is not the same as mathematical economics, which implies
the application of advanced mathematical methods to study
any given problem. Some reject mathematical economics: The
Austrian School of economics believes that anything beyond
simple logic is not only unnecessary but inappropriate for
Academic work sometimes requires years of training to be
fully understandable. However, the basic ideas of economics
can be taught with no more than simple arithmetic and graphs.